What is the name for the chemicals stored in the synaptic vesicles?

Neurotransmitters.

Within a neuron, there are long tubes known as Neurotubules. These carry the synaptic vesicles from the cell body to the synapse (like a factory conveyor belt). When an electrical impulse arrives at the neuron’s synapse, the synaptic vesicle fuses with the cell membrane and releases lots of molecules known as Neurotransmitters .

These neurotransmitters are responsible for turning the electrical impulse into a chemical one, which crosses over to the next neuron to become an electrical one again (and thus the signal is passed on).

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(If you want to learn more about this, then click to go to my answer on synapses and impulses)

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